The particles are very close together
The particles vibrate but have fixed positions
The particles are held together by strong forces of attraction
Solids have a definite shape and volume and are hard to compress.
- The particles are very close together
- The particles are held together by forces of attraction
- The particles move relative to each other
- Liquids have a definite volume ,but not a definite shape and are hard to compress.
- The particles are far apart from each other
- The particles are very small forces of attraction between particles
- The particles move rapidly in all directions
- Gases do not have a definite shape or volume and easy to compress.
Change of state
- The particles of solid are heated and vibrate more.
- The vibration of the particles overcomes the forces of attraction between the particles, enabling them to move more freely.
- The particles of the liquid are heated and move more quickly.
- The movement of liquid particles overcomes the forces of attraction between the particles.
- The particles in the gas move faster.
- As water is boiled, kinetic energy causes the hydrogen bonds to break completely and allows water molecules to escape into the air as gas (steam or water vapor).
- When water freezes, water molecules form a crystalline structure maintained by hydrogen bonding.
- Solid water, or ice, is less dense than liquid water.
- Ice is less dense than water because the orientation of hydrogen bonds causes molecules to push farther apart, which lowers the density.
- For other liquids, solidification when the temperature drops includes the lowering of kinetic energy, which allows molecules to pack more tightly and makes the solid denser than its liquid form.
- Because ice is less dense than water, it is able to float at the surface of water.
This is the end of the topic!
Drafted by Cherry (Chemistry)