All substances are made up of tiny particles called atoms. There are about 100 different types of atom found naturally on Earth and they can combine in a huge variety of ways, giving all those different substances. They have a central nucleus with electrons orbiting around it.
Elements are made up of one type of atom and are composed entirely of the same atoms (have the same atomic number).
- Elements can have different properties: silver, gold, copper, and chromium are solid, shiny metals
- But other elements like argon, chlorine, nitrogen, and argon are non-metals and are gases at room temperature.
They are made up of three sub-atomic particles:
Hydrogen does not contain a neutron.
- Protons have a positive charge.
- Electrons have a negative charge. Neutrons are neutral (they have no charge). This makes it easier to remember.
NEUtrons are NEUtral.
- There is the same amount of positive protons as negative electrons. This means that an atom has no overall charge.
- Different elements have different numbers of protons in the nucleus.
That is all!