PHYS - Kinetic Particle Theory
Physics, kinetic theory - IB | DSE | GCE | IAL | AP Physics
Kinetic Particle Theory
- All matter is made of many small particles that are constantly moving.
- The properties of solid, liquid and gas can be explained by the movement and arrangement of the particles.
If you look up IGCSE Physics past papers, questions asking the properties of different states of matter appear frequently.
Properties of State
- Have a fixed shape and maintain the shape
- Difficult to compress
- Do not have a fixed shape and fill the bottom of the container
- Do not have a fixed shape and expand to fill any container
- Easy to compress
You should be able to describe Brownian motion for IGCSE Physics!! 😋
- Liquid and gas particles move randomly.
- This is due to the constant bombardment from surrounding particles.
Effect of Temperature on Thermal Expansion
When a matter is heated, heat causes the particles to move faster (thermal energy is converted into kinetic energy).
- Particles vibrate faster about their fixed point.
- The volume increase of solid when heated is very small.
- Particles move around faster.
- Liquid expands more than solids because the attractive bond between the particles is smaller than in solids.
- Particles move around with faster speed.
- Since particles within gas are further apart and weakly bonded to each other, gas expands a lot when heated.
- When gas is contained in a fixed volume container, the particles collide on the walls of the container more frequently and with a bigger force when it is heated. Therefore, the pressure that gas exerts on the walls of the container increases.
Commonly asked in IGCSE Physics: how do the movements of particles differ for solid, liquid and gas when they are heated?
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