**I/GCSE Physics**** Question Analysis Topic: Chapter 2: Electricity - Energy and Voltage in Circuits (Part 3)**

For I/GCSE Physics, you should know:

Now, let's dive into the last part of IGCSE Physics Chapter 2's sub-topic on "Energy and Voltage in Circuits."

Electric current in solid metallic conductors is a flow of **negatively charged electrons**. The electrons are able to move freely within the metal, and when a **potential difference (voltage)** is applied across the conductor, the **electrons begin to flow**, creating an electric current.

Current is conserved at a junction in a circuit. This means that the total current flowing into a junction is **equal to **the total current flowing out of the junction. The current does not "pile up" or "disappear" at a junction, as it must be conserved.

Voltage across two components** connected in parallel is the same**. This is because the **potential difference across the two components is the same**, as they are connected to the same two points in the circuit.

When calculating the currents, voltages, and resistances of two resistive components connected in a series circuit, you can use **Ohm's law (V = I × R)** and the fact that the current is the same through all components in a series circuit. **The total resistance of the circuit is the sum of the individual resistances, and the voltage drops across the components are proportional to their individual resistances**.

**Voltage is the energy transferred per unit charge passed**. The volt (V) is the unit of voltage, and it represents the energy transferred per unit charge (1 V = 1 J/C).

The relationship between energy transferred, charge, and voltage is given by the equation: **E = Q × V**, where E is the energy transferred, Q is the charge, and V is the voltage.

Work hard for your I/GCSE Physics examination!

End of analysis. Great!