In I/GCSE Chemistry, we will learn about air quality.
Motor vehicles and power stations that burn fossil fuels are two major sources of atmospheric pollution, so we need to look at how emissions from these sources can be reduced.
Emissions from power stations can be reduced by:
- Using less electricity so fewer fossil fuels need to be burned.
- Removing toxic chemicals before they are burned, e.g. removing the sulfur from natural gas and fuel oil.
- Using alternative renewable sources of electricity, e.g. solar energy, wind energy and hydroelectric energy to replace fossil fuels
- Refer to I/GCSE Chemistry, using a filter to remove sulfur dioxide and particulates (carbon and ash) from flue gases before they leave a coal-burning power stations chimney.
- The sulfur dioxide is removed from flue gases by wet scrubbing, using an alkaline slurry or seawater
Emissions from motor vehicles can be reduced by:
- Buying a car with a modern engine that is more efficient and burns less fuel
- Buying a hybrid car, which uses electric power in the city centre and can then switch to running on petrol for longer journeys
- When it comes to I/GCSE Chemistry, using a low-sulfur (readily available) to reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide released
- Converting the engine to run on biodiesel, which is a renewable fuel
- Adjusting the balance between public and private transport to reduce the number of vehicles on the road
- Making sure cars are fitted with CATALYTIC CONVERTERS which reduce the amount of carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide emitted.
It has a honeycomb structure which has a bigger surface area there is more efficient.
In 1997 there was an international meeting about climate change in Kyoto, Japan. People from many nations agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and targets were set for individual countries
Some initiatives set by the UK:
• Setting legal limits for vehicle exhaust emissions, which are enforced by statutory MOT (ministry of transport) tests.
• Making catalytic converters compulsory on new vehicles
• Introducing a car tax system that encourages drivers to buy smaller cars with smaller engines
• Encouraging investment in non-polluting renewable energy such as wind and solar energy.
Many local authorities are trying to encourage us to make environmentally friendly choices by providing:
• Doorstep collections of paper, bottles, metals and plastics for recycling
• Regular bus and train services
• Electric trams (in some cities)
• Congestion charges
• ‘Park and ride’ schemes
• Cycle paths and cycle parks
• Using less energy in the home reduces the demand for energy from power stations. E.g. turning off televisions and not leaving them on standby.
• Making sure your car is energy efficient and has a catalytic converter, or choosing an alternative mode of transport (e.g. a bicycle) cuts down a vehicle emissions
• Recycling materials like paper, bottles, metals and plastics help to conserve natural resources but also saves energy. E.g. it takes about 95% less energy to recycle an aluminium can than to make a new one
That's all~ Thanks for watching.