CHEM - Reversible Reaction and Equilibrium
Chemistry, reversible reaction, equilibrium- IGCSE | IBDP | DSE | GCE | AP Chemistry
1. Dehydration of hydrated copper(II) sulfate
CuSO4·5H2O(s) ⇌ CuSO4(s) + 5H2O(l)
A reversible reaction can reach dynamic equilibrium when it occurs in a closed system such as a sealed container.
Conditions for dynamic equilibrium:
Shifting of Equilibrium
Position of equilibrium: The position of equilibrium is a measure of the concentrations of the reactants and products.
Factors that Affect the Equilibrium Position
Frequently asked in IGCSE Chemistry are questions on how equilibrium is shifted by changes in different factors 👇
Iodine monochloride reacts reversibly with chlorine to form iodine trichloride. Iodine monochloride is dark brown in color while iodine trichloride is yellow.
ICl + Cl2 ⇌ ICl3
When the equilibrium mixture is heated, it becomes darker brown in color. Explain whether the backward reaction is exothermic or endothermic.
Ammonia (NH3) can be made by reacting nitrogen and hydrogen, in the presence of an iron catalyst, according to the equation
N2(g) + 3H2(g) ⇌ 2NH3(g) ∆H = –92 kJ/mol
The reaction is reversible and the reaction mixture can, if left for long enough, reach a position of dynamic equilibrium. The graph shows how the percentage of ammonia at equilibrium depends on the temperature and pressure used. Use the graph to describe the effect of temperature and pressure on the percentage of ammonia at equilibrium.
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