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1.40 Explain, using dot and cross diagrams, the formation of covalent compounds by electron sharing for the following:
iii) Hydrogen Chloride
ix) Carbon Dioxide
Part I- Hydrogen
A hydrogen atom has an electronic arrangement of 1. It needs 1 more atom to have the electronic arrangement of noble gases. When each hydrogen atom shares its electron with another hydrogen atom, it can achieve the electronic arrangement of noble gases.
🧐The negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nuclei of both atoms resulting in a covalent bond that holds the 2 atoms together.
Part II- Chlorine
A chlorine atom has an electronic arrangement of 2,8,7. Each chlorine can obtain the electronic arrangement of noble gases by sharing one of its outermost shell electrons with another chlorine atom.
🧐In the chlorine molecule, each chlorine has three lone pair electrons
Part III- Hydrogen Chloride
A chlorine atom has an electronic arrangement of 2,8,7 while a hydrogen atom has an electronic arrangement of 1.
🧐One hydrogen atom forms a single covalent bond with one chlorine atom resulting in a hydrogen chloride molecule
Part IV- Water
An oxygen atom has an electronic arrangement of 2,6. One oxygen atom forms a single covalent bond with each of two hydrogen atoms resulting in a water molecule.
🧐A water molecule has two bond pairs and two lone pairs
Part V- Methane
Hydrogen atoms can each form one covalent bond, while carbon atoms can each form four covalent bonds.
🧐In a methane molecule, 4 pairs of electrons are shared
Part VI- Ammonia
A nitrogen atom has an electronic arrangement of 2,5. One nitrogen atom forms a single covalent bond with each of the 3 hydrogen atoms.
🧐The nitrogen atom in an ammonia molecule has three bond pairs and one lone pair
Part VII- Oxygen
Each oxygen atom shares two of its electrons with another oxygen atom.
🧐Oxygen atoms share two pairs of electrons thus the bond between them is called a double bond
Part VIII- Nitrogen
Each nitrogen atom shares three of its electrons with another nitrogen atom.
🧐Nitrogen atoms share three pairs of electrons thus the bond between them is called a triple bond
Part IX- Carbon Dioxide
A carbon atom has an electronic arrangement of 2,4.
🧐One carbon atom forms two double bonds with each of the two oxygen atoms resulting in a carbon dioxide molecule
🧐 6 hydrogen atoms each share their electron with one of the 2 carbon atoms. The carbon atoms share their remaining electrons with each other in a single covalent bond resulting in Ethane molecule
Part XI- Ethene
🧐4 hydrogen atoms share their electron with one of the 2 carbon atoms. The two carbon atoms share their last two electrons with each other resulting in Ethene molecule
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