CHEM - Crude Oil
Chemistry, crude oil, fractional distillation, hydrocarbon - IGCSE | IBDP | DSE | GCE | AP Chemistry
Hydrocarbon is a compound that contains carbon, oxygen and hydrogen only.
Separation of Crude Oil with Fractional Distillation
Crude oil can be separated into different fractions using fractional distillation since different fractions of crude oil have different boiling points.
For IGCSE chemistry, you should be able to identify the names and uses of each fraction.
Trends in color, boiling point and viscosity of the fractions
Catalytic cracking is breaking down larger hydrocarbon molecules into smaller, more useful hydrocarbon molecules.
Formation of Harmful Gases
I. Carbon monoxide
When there is a limited supply of oxygen, hydrocarbons undergo incomplete combustion. During incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide is produced.
hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon monoxide + water
Carbon monoxide reduces the capacity of blood to transport oxygen, and is poisonous to us.
II. Oxides of nitrogen
When fuels are burned at high temperatures in car engines, nitrogen and oxygen in the air can form nitrogen oxides. (e.g. nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide)
When nitrogen oxides react with water droplets and oxygen in the cloud, nitric acid and nitrous acid will be formed, which causes acid rain.
III. Sulfur dioxide
Fuels may contain impurities, such as sulfur. During combustion, sulfur will be oxidized to sulfur dioxide.
When sulfur dioxides react with water droplets and oxygen in the cloud, sulfuric acid will be formed, which causes acid rain.
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