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Let's learn about how graphs can be transformed with a little change on the function in A-Level Maths!

**Transformation of graphs**

The transformations so far follow these rules:

- f(x) + a is f(x) shifted upward a units
- f(x) – a is f(x) shifted downward a units
- f(x + a) is f(x) shifted left a units
- f(x – a) is f(x) shifted right a units
- –f(x) is f(x) flipped upside down ("reflected about the x-axis")
- f(–x) is the mirror of f(x) ("reflected about the y-axis")

Drafted by Eunice (Maths)

References:

https://socratic.org/questions/how-do-you-sketch-the-graph-of-y-x-2-2-2-and-describe-the-transformation-1

https://www.pearson.com/uk/educators/schools/subject-area/mathematics/unrivalled-support/support-from-pearson/gcse-maths-transition-to-alevel/chapter-four-graphs-and-transformations.html

https://www.storyofmathematics.com/transformations-of-functions

https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/transformation-of-graphs-revision-11255756