- It’s a genetic disease that affects exocrine glands and mucus secreting glands of the airway, gut, reproductive system and some sweat glands.
- Cystic fibrosis leads to production of thick sticky mucus with the following effects: Problems in respiratory and digestive system, Infertility, Production of salty sweat.
- Treatment: Physiotherapy, Diet and enzymes, Drug therapy transplant surgery, Infertility treatment, Gene therapy
Causes of Cystic Fibrosis
- It’s a condition in organisms in which natural melanin pigment if the skin, eye and hair do not form.
- A mutant allele prevents the formation of enzyme tyrosinase which is active in melanocytes (pigment forming cells). As a result, the reaction of making melanin cannot occur
- Albinism is usually inherited through a recessive allele.
Photo of an albinism patient
When it comes to IBDP Biology,
- It’s a disorder that affects the polypeptide chain of the heamoglobin molecule in blood.
- Heamoglobin contains 574 amino acids that are arranged in four polypeptide chains and are held together by sulphur bridges.
- Types of Polypeptide Chains: Alpha α polypeptide chain, Beta β polypeptide chain
- Each polypeptide chain is then arranged around an iron containing haem group.
- It’s inherited from genes on two loci on chromosome 16
- It’s caused by deletion of one or more genes
- The more genes are deleted; less alpha hemoglobin is formed resulting to more fatal condition.
- Individual with mild thalassemia tend to have low levels of anemia and increased resistance to malaria
- When it comes to IBDP Biology, its caused by mutation in HBB gene on chromosome 11.
- About 100 types of mutation affect the gene and their effects differ.
- Many mutations may reduce the number of beta heamoglobin chain leading to mild symptoms of anemia.
- Severe beta thalassemia could occur especially when heamoglobin molecule cannot be made. This condition is called thalassemia Major of Cooley’s anemia
- Mutation that cause beta thalassemia usually form recessive alleles. Carrier parents have the ability to produce sick children.
This is the end of this topic