What is a monoclonal antibody?
It is an antibody which is cloned from 1 specialised cell for a specific purpose.
How are they made?
- Rats are injected with a vaccine for the target antigen
- Lymphocytes are produced by the rat's immune system. The lymphocite produces the wanted antibody
- The lymphocites with the antigen are harvested
- They are combined with tumour cells as they divide a lot faster than the Lymphocytes to produce a Hybrogen
- They divide quickly to produce lots and lots of the antibody
Uses of Monoclonal Antibodies
- The hormone HCG is only produced during pregnancy
- Monoclonal antibodies are located on the test zone of the pregnancy test
- When HCG is present in the woman's urine, the antibodies will bind to the HCG and produce a colour change
- This is how a pregnancy test can determine whether a woman is pregnant or not
Monoclonal antibodies can be used during cancer treatment in 4 different ways:
- It can target the tumor cell and highlight it to the doctors as to where the cell is located in the body
- They can be used as a direct way for killing the tumor cell as they contain the anticancer drug
- They also can be used to block the hormone which causes the tumor cell to divide
- Finally, they can trigger the immune system to fight these tumor cells
That's the end of today's topic!
Drafted by Yoshi (Biology)