In I/GCSE Biology, antibiotics are substances that kill bacteria or prevent their growth. They do not work against viruses. It is difficult to develop drugs that kill viruses without damaging the body’s tissues.
The first antibiotic, penicillin, was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. He noticed that some bacteria he had left in a petri dish had been killed by naturally occurring penicillium mould.🎉🎉🎉
Since the discovery of penicillin, many other antibiotics have been discovered or developed. Most of those used in medicine have been altered chemically to make them more effective and more safe for humans.
Monoclonal Antibiotics 🧐
Monoclonal antibodies are identical copies of antibodies that have been made in laboratories. They have a number of different uses. They need to be made in large numbers to work properly. The process for making them is shown in the diagram below.
Monoclonal antibodies are used in a wide variety of ways. They are used in pregnancy test kits to identify the small levels of a hormone called human chorionic gonadotrophin, which is present in the urine of pregnant women. They can also be used to locate blood clots as they bind to clots.
They can also be used to diagnose and then treat some cancers. They can bind to the cancerous cells and help the person’s immune system attack them.
This form of cancer treatment has a number of advantages over radiotherapy and chemotherapy, both of which can have unpleasant side effects including hair loss, suppression of immune response (meaning you are susceptible to infection by pathogens) and reduction in the ability to clot blood (meaning wounds take longer to heal and bruises are more extensive).
That's the end of the topic!
Drafted by Joey (Biology)